The World Knot

Welcome to the World Knot. The main topic here is metaphysics. Metaphysics is a muddle in western academia. Over the centuries the problems of philosophy have been tangled into a knot of such complexity that they may seem intractable. The essays here are an attempt to show that they are not, and that all that would be necessary for their solution is a rigorous simplification of the issues and a rough understanding of the perennial philosophy.

There are very few topics that are not relevant to metaphysics, however, and vice versa, and so there will also be discussions of mathematics, psychology, physics, biology, music and other things.

The writings on the blog should be systematic regardless of the topic. This may not be the case but it is the intention.

The pages are more like essays than posts and are usually longer, and the topics covered are not linked to the tag cloud.

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Iggy Pop and the Music Biz: How to Get In and How to Get Out

A few days ago and quite by chance, as I idly flicked through the TV channels, I arrived on the BBC right at the beginning of the annual John Peel lecture, given this year by Iggy Pop. I was spellbound. It’s one of the best things I’ve seen on the TV for years.

in case there’s anybody who doesn’t know, John Peel (Blessed be His Name) is the God of British Music Radio. Iggy Pop everybody knows. He currently does a weekly show for BBC Radio 6.

Not everyone is interested in the music business but Iggy’s talk ranged a lot wider than this and it’s a great performance. His advice for young musicians entering the music biz includes the line, ‘always maintain a spiritual exit’.

I thought it was worth re-promoting since I nearly missed it. These old pros, the ones that survive, pick up a lot of wisdom along with the bruises. It’s here…

http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b04m9q6v/bbc-music-john-peel-lecture-1-2014-iggy-pop

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The Doctrine of Divine Simplicity and The Problem of Attributes

 

In ‘western’ or dualistic philosophies the problem of attributes arises and is intractable. It is one of many such ‘barriers to knowledge’ collectively known as the ‘problems of philosophy’. Here is Colin McGinn wrestling with this problem as a teenager from his (very readable) book The Making of a Philosopher (2002).

…[P]icture me sitting on a bench staring at a British mailbox on a blustery spring day in Blackpool. I had just been reading about the questions of substance and qualities, and was suitably transfixed. Is an object the sum of its qualities or does it have an existence that is some way goes beyond its qualities? The mailbox had a variety of qualities – it was red, cylindrical, metal, etc. – but it seemed to be more than just the collection of these; it was a thing, a “substance,” that had these qualities. But what was this substance that had those qualities? Did it lie behind them in some way, supporting them like the foundation of a house? If so, what was this underlying thing like – what qualities did it have? If it had some qualities, wouldn’t there be the same problem again, since it would also have to be distinct from these qualities? But if it had no qualities, what kind of thing could it be? How could these be something that had no qualities? So maybe we should say that there is nothing more to a mailbox than the qualities it manifests. And yet how can an object be just a set of abstract qualities? Isn’t it more solid and concrete than that? … I had a vague mental image of a grey amorphous something that constituted the underlying mailbox, to which its various manifest qualities mysteriously were attached… Yet as soon as I replaced this fuzzy image with the qualities by themselves, trying to think of the mailbox as just a “bundle of qualities,” the object itself seemed to disappear.

Here we see one of the fundamental problems with materialism and other such forms of realism, which is the reification of objects on the basis of their phenomenal attributes. When one looks, there is no object there. If the attributes are real then the object must be unreal. This logical and empirical problem is insurmountable once such a reification has occurred. Mysticism solves this problem as it does all metaphysical problems, by refusing to reify anything at all. It makes the claim that experience shows that objects and subjects, and all the products of division and separation, are not metaphysical absolutes but emergent, evolved, epiphenomenal, illusory, not really real.

The monotheistic religions seem at first to be cut off from this solution since there is a tendency to reify God and to define Him in terms of His attributes. If we follow McGinn’s thinking, then this reification of God’s attributes entails the de-reification of God. It is the same problem as afflicts materialism, albeit that it is not so troublesome in philosophy and physics where God can be denied, and where the problem can be more easily stated in terms of English letterboxes. It can be overcome within theism, however, as long as we do not mind our theism becoming consistent with mysticism and the perennial philosophy. Many Christians and Muslims would be horrified at the idea that the seemingly heretical doctrine taught by the mystics might be a correct description of the world and the correct interpretation of the scriptures, but it is not very difficult to make a case and when it comes down to brass tacks the logic of the situation forces us to consider this possibility.

For a solution to the problem of attributes we would have to return to a classical definition of God. This definition would be a great deal more sophisticated than most modern ideas, many of which make easy prey for critics, so easy that they might be called straw-men. A more sophisticated idea of God allows us to consider ideas from Christian mysticism, Buddhism and Sufism, which are at the limit atheistic but which nevertheless find the idea of God perfectly acceptable. We can see the way they overlap in the doctrine of ‘Divine Simplicity’. In the final analysis the problem of attributes can be solved in only one way, and this is by assuming that attributes do not adhere to an object but are what an object actually is. An object would then be no more than its phenomenal attributes. This would be why McGinn can find no more than this, that there is no more. The object is a conceptual imputation. We see the attributes and assume an underlying carrier that binds them together. This gives us an idea we call ‘Matter’. Matter, however, is not something that can be identified, observed, verified or found by any means. All we could ever find is phenomenal attributes. For physics this is all there ever is and ever can be. But for physics the logical relationship between these attributes and whatever it is that they are attributes of is incoherent. A fundamental dualism of object and attribute prevents us from making sense of objects or ever finding one.

In theology this problem may be sidestepped if we endorse the doctrine of Divine Simplicity. Then we will have available to us the solution given in mysticism. It would be phrased in theistic terms but this would be a subtle theism and its terms would represent classical concepts and not one of the naïve ideas about God that abound these days and that are so popular with debunkers. Here is the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on Divine Simplicity. It seems to me that in this context the term ‘God’ might be replaced by the ‘Real’ or by Plotinus’ ‘First’, which he describes as a ‘Simplex’. We must now think of the whole of the phenomenal world as an attribute of God, thus by reduction identical with God, such that dualism of any kind would be false. All would be a unity, and all division would be conceptual.

According to the classical theism of Augustine, Anselm, Aquinas and their adherents, God is radically unlike creatures in that he is devoid of any complexity or composition, whether physical or metaphysical. Besides lacking spatial and temporal parts, God is free of matter/form composition, potency/act composition, and existence/essence composition. There is also no real distinction between God as subject of his attributes and his attributes. God is thus in a sense requiring clarification identical to each of his attributes, which implies that each attribute is identical to every other one. God is omniscient, then, not in virtue of instantiating or exemplifying omniscience — which would imply a real distinction between God and the property of omniscience — but by being omniscience. And the same holds for each of the divine omni-attributes: God is what he has. As identical to each of his attributes, God is identical to his nature. And since his nature or essence is identical to his existence, God is identical to his existence. This is the doctrine of divine simplicity (DDS). It is represented not only in classical Christian theology, but also in Jewish, Greek, and Islamic thought. It is to be understood as an affirmation of God’s absolute transcendence of creatures. God is not only radically non-anthropomorphic, but radically non-creaturomorphic, not only in respect of the properties he possesses, but in his manner of possessing them. God, we could say, differs in his very ontology from any and all created beings.

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/divine-simplicity/

Despite many years studying comparative religion this idea of God and his attributes escaped me until last week. This may be because I find theology an impossible field of study. It is not only that it is complicated, but I find that logic immediately leads me to the idea that the thing I am supposed to be studying does not exist in the way that theology usually assumes. But Divine Simplicity is an idea that transcends theology. It can exist and function without need for the word ‘God’. This word would become optional, as we see from the wisdom traditions and the perennial philosophy. Here the principle of non-duality takes us beyond theism and there is no attempt at the reification of phenomena.

The idea of Divine Simplicity in Christianity suggests that it is possible to move from an exoteric version of this religion with its objectification of God and the world, back to a more classical notion that is ambiguous on God’s existence, and from there onwards to mysticism, without the need for a great deal of mental gymnastics. Divine Simplicity is such a profound idea that much can be learnt from an analysis of what it claims whatever one believes about God, and it quickly becomes apparent that the God it endorses, since it is ontologically unique and transcends existence, would make a very promising ontological primitive for a theory of everything.

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On Time and Doing Our Epistemic Duty: The Philosopher and the Wolf by Mark Rowlands

 

Philosophers often consider that actions that are immoral are the result of a failure of duty on the part of their perpetrators. There would be two kinds of duty involved. Here is Mark Rowlands on this topic from his book The Philosopher and the Wolf. He is speaking in part about some highly unpleasant, extensive and frankly barbaric laboratory experiments on dogs carried out by three Harvard psychologists involving electric shocks and deliberately induced panic, pain and suffering.

On the one hand, there is a failure to do ones moral duty. The particular duty in question is to protect those who are defenceless against those who deem them inferior and therefore expendable. If this is not a basic moral obligation, it is difficult to imagine what it is.

There is, however, another kind of duty involved: something that philosophers call epistemic duty. This is the duty to subject one’s beliefs to the appropriate amount of critical scrutiny: to examine whether they are warranted by the available evidence and to at least attempt to ascertain whether or not there exists any countervailing evidence. Today we have scant regard for epistemic duty: so sparingly is it honoured that most people would not even regard it as a duty (and this, itself, is a failure of epistemic duty).

… Whenever we look closely at evil, in its various forms and guises, we will always find staring back at us failure of epistemic duty and failure of moral duty. Evil that is the result of explicit intentions to cause pain and suffering, and to enjoy doing so, is a rare exception.

Rowlands’ book is an interesting mixture of philosophical chat alongside instructions on how to rear and live with a wolf. Well, you never know, it might come in handy. The psychology of wolves and humans is compared and not always favourably. The philosophy is good and not stuffy although of course most readers will want to argue, and there is a very good discussion of time couched in psychological terms which compares the extended time of humans, created out of memories and anticipations, hopes, regrets and fantasies, for which the moment has no depth or meaning in itself, and that of his wolf, which resides almost entirely in the richness of the moment. Some years ago I read a study of feral children who grow up in the wild with no ‘civilising’ influences, and it was striking that those who are later re-integrated with human society invariably express a great sadness at having been torn from a vivid and vibrant life lived in the ‘now’, moment by moment, to be saddled with the dissipating distractions of the past and the present. Rowland discusses this difference of perception at some length and in an interesting way.

I found it an enjoyable book and I think any philosophically inclined animal lover would like it. The philosophy and psychology is not trite or simply derivative, there is some substance and insight to it, and the animal training advice seems spot on. From the perspective of anyone who wants the academic and scientific world to wake up and see what is right under their noses, the insanity and utter implausibility of the currently orthodox world-view and its disastrous consequences, it may be the short note on epistemic duty quoted above that will seem the most important passage.

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In Praise of Woo

 

There is a story that Socrates used to visit the markets regularly. When asked why he does so he replies that it is because he enjoys looking at all the things he can do without. This seems eminently sensible. Materialism in any form does not seem nearly so sensible.

If consciousness is an illusion of some sort, the epiphenomenal steam from the whistle of a steam-driven train in Ryle’s suicidal metaphor, then so are the contents of consciousness. In this case materialism is false. All scientific data would be illusory. It is ironic. After all, if consciousness is an illusion then nothing really exists, just as the Buddhist sage Nagarjuna goes to so much trouble to logically prove in the second century. On the hand, looking on the brighter side, if consciousness is not an illusion then materialism is false.

This illustrates the muddle that ensues when we do not make a clear distinction between what philosophers of the school of Chalmers and Dennett would call ‘consciousness’, and what a mystic might call ‘pure’ or ‘pristine’ awareness. If we fail to make this distinction then terminological, conceptual and logical chaos ineluctably ensues. We will not have the language or concepts that would be required for a coherent and comprehensible explanation of consciousness. We are left with a permanent gap in our theories that prevents us from completing them, a missing ingredient, and no general solution for metaphysics.

The ‘easy’ problem of consciousness, the filling in of all the details, may be an infinite and endlessly complex task, and probably an increasingly dull one. The ‘hard’ problem is finite and simple. The solution would be to suppose that ‘awareness’ is fundamental and then reserve the term ‘consciousness’ for whatever this awareness is aware of. What it is aware of may be defined as Maya, the phenomenal world, and counter-posed to this our little ‘self’, constructed like a bower-bird’s nest out of a hustle and bustle of thoughts, images, perceptions, sensations, hopes, fears, dreams and desires. Awareness can be none of these things so must be prior.

Using this trinitarian terminology the missing ingredient in the problem of consciousness would be ‘awareness’. We would draw a clear distinction between the contents of consciousness, that of which we are aware, all that moves and changes, all that could ever be an object for intentional consciousness or a subject counter-posed to it, and the simple fact of awareness. As well as ‘I think’ there would be ‘I Am’.

This simple fact is so completely simple that it defies intellectual analysis. As a consequence it is easily overlooked in any strictly scholastic philosophy. The definition ‘strictly scholastic’ would actually demand that we overlook it. We must talk of awareness in terms of ‘woo’, as if the whole idea is ridiculous, and ignore the vast and global literature of the one and only discipline that empirically studies the relationship between intentional or temporal consciousness and awareness.

In any strictly scholastic philosophy we certainly cannot consider the idea that when we attempt to reduce the world to the subjective or the objective, as we have been trying to do for thousands of years now, we are creating a problem that has no solution other than to stop trying to do it. We would be doomed to a lifetime of not being able to quite pin down what we are talking about when we say ‘consciousness’.

Explanations are categorical, dualistic. We explain one thing in terms of another. Explanations reside in the world of Yin and Yang, of dualism and relativity. In order to bring an explanation to an end, to reduce this two-valued logical system to its foundation, we would require three terms, one of which must transcend the dualism of the system.  This allows a final reduction. Fortunately, all formal axiomatic systems of explanation require at least one undefined term, and so we can kill two birds with one stone by making this meta-systematic third term our initial axiom. ‘Tao’ would be a traditional place-holder.

This is the solution for consciousness and origins in my opinion. The whole of it. It is mysticism. It is not ‘woo’. It is merely a more subtle and sophisticated idea than those who believe it is ‘woo’ can currently imagine in their wildest dreams. It would embarrass a materialist to learn what the use of this dismissive terminology gives away to anyone conversant with the literature of mysticism or who has some empirical knowledge of the origin and functioning of consciousness, as would the large number of people who fall into one or both of these categories.

Woo is the secret of the universe. Until we see this we will be trapped in intellectual and perceptual chains, fearful of death and ultimate meaninglessness, unable to describe Nature except as incomprehensible to us, doomed to be forever banging our heads against a thousand metaphysical dilemmas. The evidence for the truth of this is there for anyone to see.

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On Death and Consciousness

Here are some remarks on death and consciousness.  I am a big fan of Erwin Schrodinger so he gets the limelight, but he says nothing different from the others.  The joy of mysticism is that everybody agrees on the main points.  This is the benefit of empiricism as compared with speculation. Anyway, perhaps these words give us some reason to be cheerful, and even as a sceptic we might hope that there is some truth in them.

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“How does the idea of plurality (so emphatically opposed by the Upanishad writers) arise at all? Consciousness finds itself intimately connected with, and dependent on, the physical state of a limited region of matter, the body… Now, there is a great plurality of similar bodies. Hence the pluralisation of consciousness or minds seems a very suggestive hypothesis. Probably all simple ingenious people, as well as the great majority of western philosophers, have accepted it.

It leads almost immediately to the invention of souls, as many as there are bodies, and to the question whether they are mortal as the body is or whether they are immortal and capable of existing by themselves. The former alternative is distasteful, while the latter frankly forgets, ignores, or disowns the facts upon which the plurality hypothesis rests. Much sillier questions have been asked: Do animals also have souls? It has even been questioned whether women, or only men, have souls.

Such consequences, even if only tentative, must make us suspicious of the plurality hypothesis, which is common to all official western creeds. Are we not inclining to much greater nonsense if in discarding their gross superstitions, we retain their naïve idea of plurality of souls, but “remedy” it be declaring the souls to be perishable, to be annihilated with the respective bodies?

The only possible alternative is simply to keep the immediate experience that consciousness is a singular of which the plural is unknown; that there is only one thing and that, what seems to be a plurality, is merely a series of different aspects of this one thing, produced by a deception (the Indian MAYA); the same illusion is produced in a gallery of mirrors, and in the same way Gaurisankar and Mt. Everest turned out to be the same peak, seen from different valleys.

“Yet each of us has the undisputable impression that the sum total of his own experience and memory forms a unit, quite distinct from that of any other person. He refers to it as “I”. What is this “I”?

If you analyse it closely, you will, I think, find that it is just a little bit more than a collection of single data (experiences and memories), namely, the canvas upon which they are collected. And you will, on close introspection, find that what you really mean by “I,” is that ground-stuff on which they are collected. You may come to a distant country, lose sight of all your friends, may all but forget them; you acquire new friends, you share life with them as intensely as you ever did with your old ones. Less and less important will become the fact that, while living your new life, you still recollect the old one. “The youth that I was,” you may come to speak of him in the third person; indeed, the protagonist of the novel you are reading is probably nearer to your heart, certainly more intensely alive and better known to you. Yet there has been no intermediate break, no death. And even if a skilled hypnotist succeeded in blotting out entirely all your earlier reminiscences, you would not find that he had killed you. In no case is there a loss of personal existence to deplore.

Nor will there ever be.”

Erwin Schrödinger, The I That Is God 

 “To consider that after the death of the body the spirit perishes is like imagining that a bird in a cage will be destroyed if the cage is broken, though the bird has nothing to fear from the destruction of the cage. Our body is like the cage, and the spirit like the bird. We see that without the cage this bird flies in the world of sleep; therefore, if the cage becomes broken, the bird will continue and exist. Its feelings will be even more powerful, its perceptions greater, and its happiness increased.”

Adu’l-Baha, Some Answered Questions

 “The disciples said to Jesus, “Tell us how our end will be.” Jesus said, “Have you discovered, then, the beginning, that you look for the end? For where the beginning is, there will the end be. Blessed is he who will take his place in the beginning; he will know the end and will not experience death.”

Gospel of Thomas, V18

“He who has come to understand this world shall discover (only) a corpse, and whoever has discovered a corpse shall transcend this world.”

Jesus, Gospel of Thomas, V. 56

 “Cast off completely your head and skin. Thoroughly withdraw from distinctions of light and shadow. Where the ten thousand changes do not reach is the foundation that even a thousand sages cannot transmit”

Zen Master Hongzhi, Cultivating the Empty Field

 “From the point of view of a mystic, however, what left the body was the person. This body was not the person. This body was a mask which covered that person. When this mask is cast off, that visible person becomes invisible. Not he, himself, but only the mask has been thrown away. He is what he already was. If death comes, it is the removing of the mask.

From The Message through Inayat Khan, adapted from talks given in the early 1900’s, http://www.spiritual-learning.com/mysticism-1.html

 “Samsara – our conditioned existence in the perpetual cycle of habitual tendencies – and nirvana – genuine freedom from such an existence – are nothing but different manifestations of a basic continuum. So this continuity of consciousness is always present.”

Tenzin Gyatso, The Dalai Lama, The Little Book of Buddhism, Compiled and edited Renuka Singh

 “The path of those behind the veil is not to communicate with fairies nor even with God; it is to communicate with one’s deepest innermost self, as if one were blowing one’s inner spark into a divine fire. But one does not stop there, he goes still further. He then remains in a state of repose, and that repose can be brought about by a certain way of sitting and breathing and also by a certain attitude of mind. Then he begins to become conscious of that part of his being which is not the physical body, but which is above it. The more he becomes conscious of this, the more he begins to realize the truth of the life hereafter. Then it is no longer a matter of his imagination or of his belief; it is his actual realization of the experience that is independent of physical life.”

From The Message through Inayat Khan, Adapted from talks given in the early 1900’s. http://www.spiritual-learning.com/mysticism-1.html

 “The prime characteristic of cosmic consciousness is a consciousness of the cosmos, that is, of the life and order of the universe. Along with the consciousness of the cosmos there occurs an intellectual enlightenment which alone would place the individual on a new plane of existence – would make him almost a member of a new species. To this is added a state of moral exaltation, an indescribable feeling of elevation, elation, and joyousness, and a quickening of the moral sense, which is fully as striking, and more important than is the enhanced intellectual power. With these come what may be called a sense of immortality, a consciousness of eternal life, not a conviction that he shall have this, but the consciousness that he has it already.”

R. M. Bucke, Cosmic Consciousness: a study in the evolution of human Mind (1901)

“Jesus said this: “Today, when you look upon your appearance, you rejoice. However, when you shall look upon your image, which came into being at your origin, which neither dies, nor does it now appear, how will you bear up under it then?”

Gospel of Thomas, V. 88

 “Hence this life of yours which you are living is not merely a piece of the entire existence, but is, in a certain sense, the whole; only this whole is not so constituted that it can be surveyed in one single glance. This, as we know, is what the Brahmins express in that sacred, mystic formula which is yet really so simple and so clear: Tat tvam asi, this is you. Or, again, in such words as “I am in the east and the west, I am below and above, I am this whole world.”

Thus you can throw yourself flat on the ground, stretched out upon Mother Earth, with the certain conviction that you are one with her and she with you. You are as firmly established, as invulnerable, as she – indeed, a thousand times firmer and more invulnerable. As surely as she will engulf you tomorrow, so surely will she bring you forth anew to new striving and suffering. And not merely, “some day”: now, today, every day she is bringing you forth, not once, but thousands upon thousands of times, just as every day she engulfs you a thousand times over. For eternally and always there is only one now, one and the same now; the present is the only thing that has no end.”

Erwin Schrödinger, The Mystic Vision, In Ken Wilbur, Quantum Questions

 “Oh boy! Oh boy!” cried the monk-on-probation who had just cracked the Zen Master’s favourite (and valuable) drinking cup.

The frightened youngster went to the Zen Master and asked, “Why must there be death?” The Master answered, “Death is natural. It comes to all persons and things. We should not greet it with fear or meet death with anger. Why do you ask?” “Because, Master, death has come upon your cup.”

Zen Fables For Today

“For this is my word of promise, that he who loves me shall not perish.”

Krishna, Bhagavad Gita

 “We actually do not die. At death, we are merely kept inert for some time, just as during sleep. At night we sleep, and all our activities stop, but as soon as we arise, our memory immediately returns, and we think, “Oh, where am I? What do I have to do?” This is called suptotthita-nyãya. Suppose we die. “Die” means that we become inert for some time and then again begin our activities. This takes place life after life, according to our karma, or activities, and svabhãva, or nature by association. Now, in the human life, if we prepare ourselves by beginning the activity of our spiritual life, we return to our real life and attain perfection. Otherwise, according to our karma, svabhãva, prakriti and so on, our varieties of life and activity continue, and so also do our birth and death.

…The (Krisna) consciousness movement wants to stop koti-janma, repeated birth and death. In one birth, one should rectify everything and come to permanent life. This is Krisna consciousness.

A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupãda, Purports – Srimad Bhaghavatam, Tenth Canto, Part Three

“Never suppose that it is useless to prepare yourself to die at any time. For even if we live for many more years, we can never be totally ready to confront this passage. However, it is otherwise with fully awakened beings.”

The Dalai Lama, Reflections from the Journey of Life

“Ibrahim ibn Adham was seated on his throne in the Great Hall of his palace. Gathered around him were his ministers and slaves. Suddenly a fearsome figure strode into the hall, straight up to the throne.

‘What do you want?’ demanded Ibrahim ibn Adham.

‘I have just arrived at this caravanserai [caravan inn],’ replied the man.

You must be mad,’ shouted Ibrahim. ‘This is not a caravanserai. It’s my palace.’

‘And who owned this palace before you did?’ asked the man.

‘My father.’

‘And before him?’

‘My grandfather.’

‘And before him?’

‘So-and-so.’

‘And before him?’

‘So-and-so’s father.’

‘And where are they all now?’

‘They are all gone,’ relied Ibrahim. ‘They are dead.’

‘Then is this not a caravanserai, where people come and go?’

As soon as the stranger had said these words he vanished. Ibrahim realized he had received a visit from Kidhir, the immortal guide of the Sufis.

John Baldock, The Essence of Sufism

 “The reason why our sentient, percipient, and thinking ego is met nowhere within our scientific world picture can be easily indicated in seven words: because it is itself that world picture. It is identical with the whole and therefore cannot be contained in it as part of it. But of course, here we knock against the arithmetical paradox; there appears to be a great multitude of these conscious egos, the world, however, is only one. This comes from the fashion in which the world-concept produces itself. The several domains of “private” consciousness overlap. The region common to us all where they all overlap is the construct of the “real world around us.” With all that an uncomfortable feeling remains, prompting such questions as; is my world really the same as yours? Is there one real world to be distinguished from its pictures introjected by way of perception into every one of us? And if so, are these pictures like unto the real world or is the latter, the world “in itself,” perhaps very different from the one we perceive?

Such questions are ingenious, but, in my opinion, very apt to confuse the issue. They have no adequate answers. They are all, or lead to, antimonies springing from the one source, which I called the arithmetical paradox; the many conscious egos from whose mental experiences the one world is concocted.

… There are two way out of the number paradox, both appearing rather lunatic from the point of view of present scientific thought (based on ancient Greek thought and thus thoroughly “Western”). One way out is the multiplication of the world in Leibnitz’s fearful doctrine of monads: every monad to be a world by itself, no communication between them; the monad “has no windows,” it is “incommunicado.” That they all agree with each other is called “pre-established harmony”.

… There is obviously only one alternative, namely the unification of minds or consciousnesses. Their multiplicity is only apparent, in truth, there is only one mind. This is the doctrine of the Upanishads. And not only the Upanishads. The mystically experienced union with God regularly entails this attitude unless it is opposed by strong existing prejudices;…”

 Erwin Schrödinger, The Oneness of Mind

 

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Sherlock Holmes and the Case of the Missing Ingredient: A Philosophical Fantasy

Phew.  I’ve just finished the Sherlock Holmes story from which I posted some extracts earlier. I wrote myself into a corner and had a tough job getting out again.  It’s too long and I suspect it gets a bit tedious here and there, but it was fun to write.  Holmes turns his attention to the problem of consciousness and makes some progress.  Unfortunately the formatting, which follows the newspaper style of the original stories, could not be carried over into wordpress.   The full story is here…http://theworldknot.wordpress.com/the-missing-ingredient-an-anachronistic-discussion-of-consciousness/

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Duality, Unity and Realisation

This post sheds light on from the extracts from the Philokalia posted earlier concerning prayer as practiced by Christian contemplatives – http://theworldknot.wordpress.com/2014/09/10/evagrios-the-solitary-and-the-philokalia/

Here we find the reason for the approach to prayer taken by the monk Evagrios and his community.  Plotinus speaks of the transcendence of duality and why words and concepts must fail to describe it, and Zen master Hongzhi explains that this is the path to Buddhahood.

In our self-seeing There, the self is seen as belonging to that order, or rather we are merged into that self in us which has the quality of that order. It is a knowing of the self restored to purity. No doubt we should not speak of seeing; but we cannot help talking in dualities, seen and seer, instead of, boldly, the achievement of unity. In this seeing, we neither hold an object nor trace distinction; there is no two. The man is changed, no longer himself nor self-belonging; he is merged with the Supreme, sunken into it, one with it: centre coincides with centre, for centres of circles, even here below, are one when they unite, and two when they separate; and it is in this sense that we now (after the vision) speak of the Supreme as separate. This is why the vision baffles telling; we cannot detach the Supreme to state it; if we have seen something thus detached we have failed of the Supreme which is to be known only as one with ourselves.”

This is the purport of that rule of our Mysteries: ‘Nothing Divulged to the Uninitiate’: the Supreme is not to be made a common story, the holy things may not be uncovered to the stranger, to any that has not himself attained to see. There were not two; beholder was one with beheld; it was not a vision compassed but a unity apprehended. The man formed by this mingling with the Supreme must – if only he remember – carry its image impressed upon him: he is become the Unity, nothing within him or without inducing any diversity; no movement now, no passion, no outlooking desire, once this ascent is achieved; reasoning is in abeyance and all Intellection and even, to dare the word, the very self: caught away, filled with God, he has in perfect stillness attained isolation; all the being calmed, he turns neither to this side nor to that, not even inwards to himself; utterly resting he has become very rest. He belongs no longer to the order of the beautiful; he has risen beyond beauty; he has overpassed even the choir of the virtues; he is like one who, having penetrated the inner sanctuary, leaves the temple images behind him – though these become once more first object of regard when he leaves the holies; for There his converse was not with image, not with trace, but with the very Truth in the view of which all the rest is but of secondary concern.

There, indeed, it was scarcely a vision, unless of a mode unknown; it was a going forth from the self, a simplifying, a renunciation, a reach towards contact and at the same time a repose, a meditation towards adjustment. This is the only seeing of what lies within the holies: to look otherwise is to fail.

Plotinus, Enneads, VI. 9, On the Good, or the One, 10-11

Contemplating your own authentic form is how to contemplate Buddha. If you can experience yourself without distractions, simply surpass partiality and go beyond conceptualising. All Buddhas and all minds reach the essential without duality.

Zen Master Hongzhi. Cultivating the Empty Field.

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Evagrios the Solitary and the Philokalia

 The Philokalia (from the Greek – “love of the beautiful”) is a collection of texts written between the fourth and fifteenth centuries mostly by monastic writers of the Christian hesychast tradition. It was compiled by St. Nikodemos of the Holy Mountain and St. Makarios of Corinth, two monks of the Greek Orthodox Church, and first published in 1782. The book is a principal spiritual text for all the Eastern Orthodox Churches. In the last century its popularity has spread to include Western Christians, due to the growing interest in contemplative prayer.  In it we find the Christianity of the Desert Fathers, and its growing popularity beyond the Orthodox Church suggests that this form of Christianity and its practices has more appeal to a modern mind than a theism  that derives from the Old Testament.  Here is Evagrios clarifying some of the rules for progressing beyond the exoteric literalism of dogmatic theism. 

Evagrios the Solitary – On Prayer

 4. When Moses tried to draw near the burning bush he was forbidden to approach until he had loosed his sandals from his feet. If, then, you wish to behold and commune with Him who is beyond sense-perception and beyond concept, you must free yourself from every impassioned thought.

11. Try to make your intellect deaf and dumb during prayer; you will then be able to pray.

44. If your intellect is still distracted during prayer, you do not know what it is like to pray as a monk; but your prayer is still wordly, embellishing the outer tabernacle.

56. One who has attained dispassion has not necessarily achieved pure prayer. For he may still be occupied with thoughts which, though dispassionate, distract him and keep him far from God.

57. When the intellect no longer dallies with dispassionate thoughts about various things, it has not necessarily reached the realm of prayer; for it may still be contemplating the inner essences of these things. And though such contemplation is dispassionate, yet since it is of created things, it impresses their forms upon the intellect and keeps it away from God.

73. When the intellect attains prayer that is pure and free from passion, the demons attack no longer with sinister thoughts but with thoughts of what is good. For they suggest to it an illusion of God’s glory in a form pleasing to the senses, so as to make it think it has realised the final aim of prayer. A man who possesses spiritual knowledge has said that this illusion results from the passion of self-esteem and from the demon’s touch of certain areas of the brain.

74. I think that the demon, by touching this area, changes the light surrounding the intellect as he likes. In this way he uses the passion of self-esteem to stir up in the intellect a thought which fatuously attributes form and location to divine principial knowledge. Not being disturbed by impure and carnal passions, but supposing itself to be in a state of purity, the intellect imagines that there is no longer any adverse energy within it. It then mistakes for a divine manifestation the appearance produced in it by the demon, who cunningly manipulates the brain and converts the light surrounding the intellect into a form, as we have described.

67. When you are praying. Do not shape within yourself any image of the Deity, and do not let your intellect be stamped with the impress of any form; but approach the Immaterial in an immaterial manner, and then you will understand.

68. Be on your guard against the tricks of the demons. While you are praying purely and calmly, sometimes they suddenly bring before you some strange and alien form, making you imagine in your conceit that the Deity is there. They are trying to persuade you that the object suddenly disclosed to you is the Deity, whereas the Deity does not possess quantity and form.

114. Never try to see a form or shape during prayer.

115. Do not long to have a sensory image of angels or powers or Christ, for this would be madness: it would be to take a wolf as your shepherd and to worship your enemies, the demons.

116. Self-esteem is the start of illusions in the intellect. Under its impulse, the intellect attempts to enclose the Deity in shapes and forms.

117. I shall say again what I have said elsewhere: blessed is the intellect that is completely free from forms during prayer.

118. Blessed is the intellect that, undistracted in its prayer, acquires an ever greater longing for God.

119. Blessed is the intellect that during prayer is free from materiality and stripped of all possessions.

120. Blessed is the intellect that has acquired complete freedom from sensations during prayer.

121. Blessed is the monk who regards every man as God after God.

122. Blessed is the monk who looks with great joy on everyone’s salvation and progress as if they were his own.

125. A monk is one who regards himself as linked with every man, through always seeing himself in each.

This topic continues here with some explication of Evagrios’ approach from Plotinus and Hongzhi – http://theworldknot.wordpress.com/2014/09/17/duality-unity-and-realisation/

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The Simplicity of Metaphysics

I took up my investigation of metaphysics quite late in life, and right from the start my intention was to simplify it. A background in management had taught me that a good decision depends entirely on having a clear understanding of the problem at hand, and that the only sure sign that one has a clear understanding of a problem at hand is that it appears to be quite simple. Exactly what ‘quite simple’ would mean here will vary from person to person, but I think most people would agree that when we examine a problem that seems to us to be quite simple then we feel we have a clear understanding of it, while if we find a problem complicated we do not feel this.

To my surprise, I quickly discovered that it is not the complexity of metaphysics that makes it difficult. As a system of calculation, a method of thinking logically about the world, its result can be encapsulated into a single sentence. It is the enormity, profundity and downright weirdness of the concepts and ideas with which we have to deal as we perform our calculations that make for the difficulty. As the mathematician Robert Kaplan speculates, and as some would say is an empirical fact, it is perfectly possible that the world as a whole, the Cosmos seen as a singular phenomenon, is more simple than we can think. On this view the principle difficulty of metaphysics would be that it is far too simple.

The reason why simplification seemed important to me from the start was that it is clear that metaphysicians do not usually get anywhere with the problems they study. When I set out this was about all I knew for sure, that academic metaphysicians were still arguing about which of the ancient Greek philosophers were right or wrong and showing no sign of ever reaching an agreement. Three years spent investigating the complexities of the problem of consciousness had led me to believe that things just had to be more simple than this. Either that I would never understand them.

It was my view, and still is, that it would be no use having an explanation of consciousness that hardly anybody would be clever enough to understand. Then hardly anybody would be able to know whether it is plausible or not. This is what allows many complicated and mutually inconsistent books on the topic to be published. For an understandable explanation we would need to ignore the details and get down to basics, and metaphysics is the only way to do this.

Metaphysics, as it is done in our universities, consists of a long list of metaphysical conjectures each of which has a counter-conjecture that is more or less equally plausible, such that they together they form a long list of ancient dilemmas something like a double-helix. All other theories are rejected, in particular anything that might be considered ‘Eastern’. In order to identify and understand all these endless dilemmas we would have to study many philosophers and do a great deal of thinking, but an overview can be quite simple. Wherever a metaphysical conjecture has a counter-conjecture such that each of the two conjectures is assumed to have an unambiguous truth-value, we find ourselves unable to decide which of them true because both conjectures are logically indefensible. Kant made this clear long ago, and he was far from the first or last to do it.

In this case, if ordinary logic is to be trusted, the world must be such that by reduction it is a unity. This would explain why we cannot prove in metaphysics that it is not. This approach to metaphysics could not be more straightforward.

What would not be at all straightforward is the task of making sense of the unified phenomenon that metaphysics implies. This would have to defined as lying being beyond the categories of thought since this would be what metaphysics proves, that an unthinkable phenomenon would be required for a fundamental theory. So, although it might be argued that metaphysics can be simplified to a few basic facts, it could never be argued that it would be easy for anybody to interpret those facts.

What facts? The result of a few millennia of careful analysis is that all partial metaphysical theories give rise to contradictions and can be refuted. They can be abandoned. Metaphysics becomes the study of the only coherent theory that remains. This could never be an easy study, but it is the profundity of the necessary ideas that make it so and not their complexity.

Plotinus calls ultimate reality a ‘Simplex’. This is the idea we would have to grapple with in order to conquer metaphysics. A Simplex has the property of not being at all complicated. It would be too simple to think since the categories of thought would have to be transcended and thought cannot transcend itself.  Still, we can define a phenomenon that is too simple to think and use it in a theory. The Tao cannot be spoken, says Lao Tsu, but he also says that it must be spoken. It can be defined negatively and spoken of by referring to its definition. Only empiricism could give us any real understanding of what we are talking about, but as theoretical term Tao is perfectly useable. If Tao is a reality then all partial metaphysical views must be false. We already know that they are logically absurd, just ask a logical positivist or dialethist, or just about anyone who thinks metaphysics is a waste of time, so really metaphysics could be seen as a ‘no-brainer’.

We could make things a lot more complicated, but why bother?

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Exploring Mysticism and Physics

I have been wondering about the properties of a ‘Bose-Einstein condensate’ in relation to a certain form of Idealism. It was a thought put into my head by Schrodinger, who speaks of the mystics as ‘particles in an ideal gas’.

It seems that the Pauli-exclusion principle usually limits the number of bosons that can occupy the same energy level. But if the bosons form an ideal condensate then they can all occupy exactly the same energy level. They would no longer interact with each other. That is, they would no longer behave as a multitude of discrete entities causally linked. They would now be in a state of quantum entanglement such that they might as well all be the same boson, a choir in perfect harmony. Or something like this. I wish I had a better grasp of the science.

There is some talk of the early universe being a condensate of such a kind. There is also a Gnostic creation story that tells of a choir of angels singing in perfect and timeless harmony, until one voice wavers, and this disturbs its neighbors, and soon there is a disharmony out of which arises the world of Maya. This sort of symmetry-breaking appears to be just the right sort of idea.

What I am wondering is whether it would be accurate to say, in some sense at least, that a truly perfect Bose-Einstein condensate could be said to be a multitude of things and a singular phenomenon at the same time. If so, then it seems very likely that an ideal condensate would be a useful idea in discussions of global consciousness. This would be a turn up.

I’m way out my depths here and wouldn’t dare discuss this on a physics forum. Still, I have a feeling this is the right way to go for a physical description of an Idealist universe. Any physicists around for a comment?

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